To truly understand magick, its roots and its workings, takes a
lifetime. Unlike many subjects and modern-day religions, the old
religion, magickal thought and the life that goes with it is a
long journey made from one's earliest enlightenment and continuing
for possibly forever. A complete account of witchcraft and magick
would fill volumes and would require us to go back to the dawn of
intelligent life on Earth, before organized religion began.
"Witches," or at least a correspondence, can be found at every
level of human evolution and can be dated back a minimum of 25,000
years to the Paleolithic period. A brief accounting cannot begin
to scratch the surface of subjects as broad and multi-faceted as
witchcraft and magick, but we will attempt to introduce you to the
basics. Although much has been written about the history of
magickal thought and witchcraft, most of it is either pure fiction
or conjecture. What follows is accepted truths, based on the
facts, as we know them today and is an extremely abbreviated
accounting of the long journey from point A to point B. It is
intended only to cover a few high and low spots in history and
gives the reader a small sense of the breadth of magickal thought.
Modern-day magick, witchcraft and sorcery easily trace some of its
roots to Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamians had many deities
specifically for various types of disasters, such as Telal: Bull
Demon, Utug: Dweller of the Desert, Alal for destruction, Namtar
for pestilence, Idpa for fever and Maskim who was the snare
It was believed that the pharaohs, kings and other persons in
positions of power all were imbued with some power of the gods, so
much so that even the slightest movement they made would cause an
action to occur. It was also believed that an image or statue
could carry the spirit of the person. For this reason, many images
and statues were carried from place to place and the most of the
images or statues of these persons were created with their hands
straight to their sides, thereby preventing them from causing any
The Bible tells a story of the "The Tower of Babel" and claims
that the tower was never finished. In other references however, it
is claimed that the "Tower" was in fact finished, and represented
the "stages" between earth and heaven. Each stage was dedicated to
a planet, with its angles symbolizing the four corners of the
world. They pointed to Akkad, Saburtu, Elam and the western lands.
The seven steps of the tower were painted in different colors,
which corresponded to the planets. The "Great Misfortune: Saturn,
was black. The second was white, the color of Jupiter. The third,
brick red, the color of Mercury, followed by blue, Venus; yellow,
Mars, gray or silver for the moon. These colors boded good or
evil, like their planets.
Also notable, is the beginning of numbers expressing a world
order. There is a legend that depicts Pythagoras having traveled
to Babylon. In Babylon, he is taught the mysteries of numbers,
their magical significance and their power. The seven steps,
mentioned in the story of the Tower of Babel, often appear in
other instances in magical philosophy, theory and thought. The
commonly accepted seven steps are: stone, fire, plants, animals,
man, the starry heavens and the angels. Starting with the study of
stones, the man of wisdom will attain higher and higher degrees of
knowledge, until he will be able to apprehend the sublime, and the
eternal. Through ascending these steps, a man would attain the
knowledge of God, whose name is at the eighth degree, the
threshold of God's heavenly dwelling.
The square was also a "mystical" symbol in these times, and though
it was divided into seven, was still respected as a correlation of
the old tradition of a fourfold world being reconciled with the
seven heavens of later times. Many accept this as the start of
numerology, but for this to develop to the point where the square
represented the fourfold world, it would have had to develop
In direct opposition to the Mesopotamians and Egyptians, who
believed that everything occurred with either the favor or lack of
favor of the Gods, the Chaldean star religion believed that luck
and disaster were not chance events at all. The Chaldeans believed
that events were controlled by the planets and stars, which seemed
to send good and bad according to mathematical laws and therefore
represented a more orderly fashion. The Chaldeans held that man
was incapable of fighting the will of the planet and star deities
and yet continued to incorporate "one's will" into one's fate.
Around the 7th Century B.C., Zoroastre was preaching the doctrines
that evil could be avoided and defeated and introduced to his
followers the principles of good and evil spirits. First and
foremost in this belief structure were Ormazd (Ahura-Mazda), king
of light and his twin brother Ahriman (Anro-Mainyu), prince of
darkness. Zoroastre also introduced the "divine battle" between
good and evil. He believed and taught that archangels controlled
by Ormazd (the spirits of Divine Wisdom, Righteousness, Dominion,
Devotion, Totality, and Salvation) and the demons controlled by
Ahriman (the spirits of Anarchy, Apostasy, Presumption,
Destruction, Decay, and Fury) were constantly at battle with one
another. Zoroastre believed that in the end, Ormazd and his angels
The last of the demons (the Demon of Fury) was incorporated into
the Hebrew and Christian belief structure. The name of the Demon
of Fury is Aeshma Daeva, known to the Hebrews as Ashmadai and to
Christians as Asmodeus.
Asmodeus was the "chief of the fourth hierarchy of evil demons,"
called "the avengers of wickedness, crimes and misdeeds" and was
not to be feared. It is common belief that Asmodeus is a teacher
of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and mechanics and that when
questioned will always answer truthfully.
Other demons, specifically Paromaiti - Arrogance, Mitox - The
Falsely Spoken Word, Zaurvan - Decrepitude, Akatasa -
Meddlesomeness, Vereno - Lust were believed to tempt people away
from the true worship of Ormazd.
Much of the current day Christian beliefs were taken from the
teachings of Zoroastre.
In Egyptian and Greek art and legend, the Sphinx was an important
image. The Sphinx was a mythological creature with a lion's body
and a human head. The word sphinx was derived from the Greek verb
sphingein (to bind or squeeze), but the etymology is not related
to the legend and is dubious.
The earliest and most famous example in art is the colossal Sphinx
at Giza, Egypt. It dates from the reign of King Khafre (4th king
of 4th dynasty; c. 2550 BC)
The Sphinx did not appear in Mesopotamia until around 1500 BC when
it was imported from the Levant. In appearance, the Asian sphinx
differed from the Egyptian primarily in the addition of wings to
the lion's body, which continued through its history in both the
Asian and Greek worlds.
While the Sphinx began as a male, another interesting version was
that of the female. The female Sphinx appeared around the 15th
century BC on seals, ivories and various engravings. It was
usually portrayed in the sitting position with one paw raised and
were frequently accompanied by a lion, griffin or another Sphinx.
Its appearance on temples and other important buildings eventually
lead to an interpretation of the sphinx as a protective and
The Sphinx rests at the foot of the three pyramids of Khufu,
Khafre and Menkure and watches over the City Of The Dead and
guards its secrets.
Plutarch (A.D. 45-126) in his book on Isis and Osiris, proposes
the Sphinx symbolizes the secrets of occult wisdom and that the
magic of the Sphinx lies within the thousands of hands that
chiseled it from rock and that the magickal thought, conjurations
and rites of those countless generations have imbued in it a
mighty, protective spirit that still exists.
Ancient Egyptians also believed that in the West lies the World of
the Dead, where the Sun god disappeared every evening. They
referred to their departed as "Westerners" and believed that the
dead, disguised as birds, flew into the sky where the heavenly
barge of Ra, the Sun god, awaited them and transformed them into
stars to travel with him through the expanse of the heavens.
The Egyptian occult of the dead reached its pinnacle when it
incorporated the story of Osiris. It was believed that Osiris was
born to save humankind. At the birth of Osiris, a voice was heard
proclaiming that the Lord had come into the world. However, his
brother/father Seth shut him up in a chest, which he carried to
the sea by the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile. Isis brought him back
to life. Seth then scattered his body all over the place. It is
said that Isis fastened the limbs together with the help of the
gods Nephtis, Thoth, and Horus, her son. Fanning the body with her
wings, and through her magic, Osiris rose again to reign as king
over the dead.
The Egyptians believed that a person had two souls; the soul known
as Ba progressed into the afterlife while the soul known as Ka
remained with the mummy. Ka was believed to live a magical life
within the tomb. Therefore, the Egyptians placed favorite
belongings of the deceased in the tomb.
Egyptian priests believed they could deceive the gods, menace and
force them into obedience. They had such faith in the power of
their magic, their spoken words and magic gestures and other
rituals, that they believed they could bend even their good gods
to their will. They threatened to bring retribution to deities who
failed to deal leniently with their dead, to shoot lightning into
the area of Shu, god of the air, who would then no longer be able
to support the sky-goddess and her star-sown body would collapse,
thereby disrupting the order of the world.
From these varied beliefs of the Ancients, magickal thought
continued to grow. The most powerful and common beliefs and
rituals survived and were incorporated into the daily lives of
many who eventually came to be known as Pagans or Heathens.
The Babylonians, Assyrians and Persians believed that myriads of
evil spirits, demons or devils hovered about the face of the earth
and caused all the evils of humanity. This belief in legions of
devils was passed through the Jews, into Christianity, and soon
became associated with the old religion and the Pagans or
Heathens. The term Pagan comes from the Latin word paganus,
meaning country dweller. Paganus, in turn, was derived from pagus,
Latin for rural area or village. As Christianity took hold, the
last people to be converted lived in outlying areas. These people
remained as practitioners of the old religion and were referred to
as being Pagan or Heathen (heath dweller); names that, due to
political pressure from Christian sources, became derogatory but
failed to eradicate them.
The old religion, which was based upon the reverence of nature and
the magick that surrounded them, was now twisted by governments
and the Christian church to represent Devil worship (a Christian
image of the Pagan Horned God), and persecution of so-called
"Witches", the Pagans and Heathens, began in earnest. The Fathers
of the Church, particularly St. Augustine, the most influential of
them all, had formally denounced the old religion and its magick
The association of
the old religion and the Heathens and Pagans with Devil worship
and St. Augustine's denouncement of it all, marked the beginning
of a dark period in the history of the world, even to the
Christian Church's new, supposedly beloved converts. The synods of
Elvira (306), Ancyra (314), and Laodicea (375), and the sermons of
St. Chrysostom and other great preachers, reveal that the new
Christians had brought with them many popular, magickal practices
of their pagan world. Abashed and annoyed and upon deeper
reflection, St. Augustine now felt it was not enough to denounce
these as pagan, so he concocted a more deadly theory: the diviner
or magician, in whose powers he firmly believed, was in league
with the devil. Moreover, as far as the Christian Church was
concerned, its Bible was quite clear about such people. It defined
a witch as one who "hath a familiar spirit" and condemned them to
death. Moreover, in the Latin and Catholic Bible verse 5 of Psalm
xcvi (Psalm xcv in the Catholic Bible) reads: "The gods of the
heathen are devils." Paganism and devilism became one.
This correlation by the early Christians and their Bible was
devastating and resulted in horrible atrocities. In the eyes of
the early Christian fathers, magick meant collusion with the
devil, a dangerous combination in a religion that taught that the
world swarmed with devils. Moreover, it was precisely this
elaborate devil-doctrine held by the great theologians of the
Middle Ages that caused the appalling witch-massacres. The
thirteenth century, being the most tyrannical, superstitious and
sanguinary century of the Middle Ages and of which modern
Catholics are so proud, inaugurated the massacres on a large
scale. This persecution reached its pinnacle in the thirteenth and
fourteenth centuries, continued in varying degrees, and still
exists today, albeit in limited areas. Thousands of innocent
people have been tortured, maimed and murdered as Witches and
The true religious history of Europe has never been written and
quite possibly will never be known, as there has been so much
suppression and distortion of facts. What we do know however is
that the accepted version is false. The idea of a "conversion" of
the Roman Empire to Christianity and that it was meekly accepted
and cherished is preposterous. Christianity was imposed by force
upon a reluctant world. Although our ancestors, the Ancients, were
denied schooling and kept in the thralls of bleakest ignorance, we
must hail them for their persistent and tireless rebellion against
the corrupt Christian Church. For it has only been by use of
deadly force on a colossal scale that the Church has managed to
maintain its dominion for so many centuries.
Enter witchcraft, as an expression of a constant effort by a
people to rid themselves of a religion forcefully imposed upon
them. Manichaeism, a rival religion to Christianity in the fourth
century and the writings of St. Augustine (who was at first a
Manichaean, but later one of the worst slanderers of the religion)
reveal to us how heroically its adherents fought for their creed
even long after imperial decrees had declared, under pain of
confiscation and death, that Christianity was to be the sole
religion of the empire.
Manichaeism was an ascetic religion, based essentially on the
ancient Persian belief in two supreme principles, one of light and
goodness, the other of darkness and evil. Manichaeism was crushed
by the aid of the imperial troops but Manichaean ideas were
destined still to play a great part in Europe. Christians vilified
the Manichees. St. Jerome candidly stated they were men and women
of far stricter virtue than the Christians themselves. Augustine,
however, was chiefly instrumental in defaming them.
Manichaean ideas like its adherents, were imprisoned, but broke
out from time to time. One of the most famous heretics of the
Greek Church, Paul of Samosata, was the son of a Manichaean
mother. His heresy combined the Manichaean principle of two
supreme powers with an early form of Protestantism or evangelical
Christianity. The Greek Church and Empire-which, let us remember,
had never been tainted by barbarian invasions-were now, in the
eighth century, appallingly corrupt, and this purer religion, as
it was, spread widely, especially among the Armenians. Emperor
after emperor tried to suppress it. The Empress Theodora put to
death no less than one hundred thousand members of the sect; or,
in a few years, made fifty times as many martyrs as the pagans had
in three centuries. Finally, in the tenth century, no less than
two hundred thousand members of the sect were transplanted from
Armenia to Thrace, to form a living bulwark against the
encroachments of the Bulgars.
Rapidly, the Paulicians spread their gospel peacefully among the
Bulgars and Europe was confronted with a new heresy, the
Bogomiles. While the Bogomiles are not widely known, a group of
heretics from the south of France, the Albigensians, who were
drowned by the greatest of the Popes, Innocent III, in their own
blood will never be forgotten. They (and the Waldensians, the
Cathari, the Patarenes, and other obscure bodies of the time) were
inspired by the Bogomiles and had the same tincture of Manichaean
ideas. The orthodox Catholics of France called them bougres
(Bulgars) and it was thus that the innocent name of a people
became the worst swearword of French and English tongues. They
were reproached with having a pope in Bulgaria. In short, from the
tenth century onward this revolt against orthodox Christianity and
its corrupt priests and monks spread over Europe like a prairie
The Paulicians, Bogomiles, Albigensians, and others of their ilk
suffered slander and misrepresentation. Psellus, one of the
leading Greek orthodox writers of the tenth century, wrote a book
titled, "On the Operations of the Devils," in which he included
almost as many fables as he had in his telling of the lives of the
martyrs. According to Psellus, the heretics would meet at night by
candlelight and invoke devils. When these devils or demons
appeared in the shape of animals, the lights would then be
extinguished and the heretics would then indulge in an orgy of
sexuality with the devils and each other. This tale spread through
Europe and was eventually applied to heretics everywhere.
To better put into perspective the gross misconceptions and
misrepresentations heaped unmercifully upon the Pagans and
Heathens, it is interesting to make note of a letter written by
Pope Gregory IX to his bishops in Germany. In 1233, Pope Gregory
IX wrote to the bishops of Germany and urged them to seek out and
persecute all heretics. The letter (from the Latin in the
"Annales" of Ravnaldus, year 1233, p. 89) a bizarre composition
which bring a smile to the lips when one hears Catholics claim
some special divine interest in their church and its popes, but it
is too long to be quoted here in full.
In his letter, the Pope stated that amongst these heretics "when a
neophyte is received there appears to him a kind of frog," though
some say it is a toad. Some kiss it shamelessly on the buttocks,
others on the mouth, drawing the tongue and spittle of the animal
into their mouths. Sometimes this toad is "as big as a goose or a
duck." The neophyte next encounters a "man of extraordinary
paleness, with deep black eyes, and so thin that his skin seems to
be stretched over his bones." The neophyte kisses him and finds
that he is "as cold as ice." The worshipers then sit at a table, a
large black cat comes out of a statue and all of them in the order
of their dignity kiss its buttocks. After a time the lights are
extinguished and there is the usual orgy of sexual intercourse.
If, the Pope gravely explains, there are more men than women, or
women than men, they resort to sodomy. The candles are once again
lighted and they sit again at the table. From a dark corner of the
room emerges a sort of man "shining like the sun from the loins
upward, but rough as a cat below." The neophyte is presented to
this devil, and the faithful give consecrated hosts, which they
have stolen, from the churches where they have communicated.
According to the
Pope, this was almost an exact account of a witch meeting. The
Pope then adds another significant detail. He states with great
authority and obviously privileged knowledge, that the heretics
declare God to be a tyrant who unjustly condemned Lucifer to hell.
According to the Pope, the heretics claim Lucifer to be the real
creator of the world and prince of men, and that in the end,
Lucifer will regain his rightful place.
Through the efforts of misguided persons such as Augustine and
Pope Gregory IX, the old religion, which is based on thousands and
thousands of years of learning and experience starting at the dawn
of the world, was terribly twisted in its presentation to the
unknowing masses and fearfully condemned by the innocent ignorant.
But great strides have been made in the past century. Increased
education and enlightenment have been bestowed by caring
individuals upon persons who formerly would have gone without.
Magick, its roots and its present-day applications are surfacing
and being accepted into the mainstream. Many are realizing where
the truth lies and how to attain the wealth of personal
satisfaction, harmony, peace and understanding that come with it.
Magick is a way of life.
The roots of what is commonly referred to as modern-day Witchcraft
and erroneously Wicca is believed to have strong associations with
the Celts, a people living between 700 BC and 100 AD. The Celts
were descended from the Indo-Europeans, and were a brilliant and
dynamic people--gifted artists, musicians, storytellers,
metalworkers, expert farmers and fierce warriors. They were much
feared by their adversaries, the Romans, who eventually adopted a
number of their customs and traditions.
The Celts were deeply spiritual and worshiped both a god and
goddess. Their religion was pantheistic, meaning they worshiped
many aspects of the "One Creative Life Source" and honored the
presence of the "Divine Creator" in all of nature. Like many
tribes the world over, they believed in reincarnation. After
death, they went to the Summerland for rest and renewal while
The months of the Celtic year were named after trees.
New Year began at Samhain, which means "summers end," and was the
final harvest of the year. Samhain was also their "Festival of the
Dead," where they honored their ancestors and deceased loved ones.
Many contemporary Halloween customs come from Samhain.
Solstice was the annual celebration of the rebirth of the Sun.
Today, many popular customs have their origins in this ancient
beginning of February came Imbolg, a time when domesticated
animals began to give birth.
Equinox and Beltaine, sometimes called "May Day", were fertility
Solstice, known as Lughnassa, celebrated the glory of the Sun and
the powers of nature.
the Fall Equinox and once again Samhain, were all considered as
Celtic harvest festivals.
"Druids" were the priests of the Celtic religion. They remained in
power through the fourth century AD, three centuries after the
Celts' defeat at the hands of the Romans. The Druids were priests,
teachers, judges, astrologers, healers and bards. They were
indispensable to the political leaders, providing them with
considerable power and influence. They Druids were revered, and
were able to pass between warring tribes unharmed. It took twenty
years of intense study to become a Druid. Translated, the word
Druid means, "knowing the oak tree". Trees, the oaks in
particular, were held sacred by the Celts. Mistletoe, which grows
as a parasite on oak trees, was a powerful herb used in their
ceremonies and for healing. Mistletoe was ritually harvested at
the Summer Solstice by cutting it with a golden sickle and
catching it with a white cloth while never letting it touch the
The religious beliefs and practices of the Celts grew into what
later became known as "Paganism", which is not to be confused with
the term "Neo-Paganism". The word Pagan is derived from the Latin
word Paganus, meaning "country dweller". This reference was
consistent with the Celts' love of the land and nature. Paganistic
beliefs and rituals eventually blended with the practices of other
Indo-European descended groups, and over several centuries spawned
such practices as concocting potions and ointments, casting
spells, and performing works of magick. These practices, along
with many of the nature-based beliefs held by the Celts and other
groups, became collectively known as "Witchcraft".
Before the fourteenth century, witchcraft meant a collection of
beliefs and practices, including healing through spells, mixing
potions, ointments or concoctions, divining or forecasting the
future, and acts of clairvoyance. Those who held sacred other
beliefs and rituals, often branded witchcraft as "demon-worship".
After North America was discovered and Europeans began migrating
to the "New World", witchcraft came into practice by some of the
early, colonial settlers. Since it had previously been branded as
"demon-worship", witchcraft was forbidden throughout the North
American colonies. Despite this decree by the leaders, some
colonists secretly practiced witchcraft, even under the fear of
knowing they might be hanged or burned if caught and found guilty.
True magick holds great power, some good and some evil, depending
on the type of magick and the intentions of the practitioner. The
better-known types of magick are denoted by colors:
Magick is performed with the intention of harming another
being, either as a means of building the practitioner's power or
as the goal itself. The underlying ideology upon which black
magick is based states that, "the practitioner and his or her
pursuit of knowledge and/or physical well-being are more important
than other concerns, theological or ethical."
Magick involves the practitioner's self-attuning to nature.
Magick is where the practitioner self-attunes to the needs of
human society and attempts to meet those needs. This is a form of
"personal betterment" magick, and does not entail harming other
Magick is magick that is neither green, nor black, nor white,
and usually replaces the absolute stand of these realms with an
ethical code that is particular to the practitioner. It is a type
of magick all its own, and may be used for many different
Magick is an eclectic collection of herbalism, faith healing,
curses and hexes, candle magick, and other workings that have
thrived in rural areas for centuries.
two spellings used for "magic" on the Internet. The reason for the
two spellings is that computers require different spellings to be
able to distinguish between two different files. In the early
'90s, the use of the word-forms "magic", for stage magic and
"magick", for mystical-ritual-supernatural practices, were
"Magick" is a spelling that has been in use for hundreds of years.
(webmaster note: it was Aleister
Crowley popularized the K addition for differentiation purpose)
The history of magick is the history of human beings. Many
accepted and revered practices such as: drama, music, art, dance,
philosophy and poetry, began as experiments in ritual and magick
but are now labeled by modern-day society as "culture". Magick has
played a role in many key moments of our history and can be a
valuable and reputable activity to undertake. For example, during
the fourteenth century, it was the philosophy of the Renaissance.
In our own time, many modern art movements have been driven by
Seemingly, there has always been confusion over the use of the
words "spells" and "hexes".
Generally speaking, a magical spell is a formula that may involve
spoken, written, or chanted words, symbolic enactments, candle
burning, ritual baths, burning of incense, sprinkling of powders,
salts, or dusts, and/or the manufacture and deployment of charms,
amulets, or talismans. The purposes and uses of spells are varied.
Spells can be cast for wish-fulfillment in regard to such things
as love, money, and good fortune; banishing spells for ridding
oneself of unwanted influences; cursing spells to bring bad luck
or harm to another; binding spells to keep someone's magic from
affecting you or others, and summoning spells to call up spirits,
ghosts, or even demons.
"Hex" comes from the German word for witchery or sorcery,
"hexencraft." A popular word in America's Pennsylvania Dutch
country, the term "hex" refers to a symbolic drawing. The drawing
is customarily a six-sided figure in a circle, derived from the
Greek word "hex", or "six", as in "hexagon". Hexes are fashioned
and used to protect farm animals, attract love, strengthen a
marriage, or break a curse. In German, the term "hexencraft"
refers to magical spells in general, and may include medical
herbology. One who makes hexes is a "hexmeister"(hex-master).
It is a common misconception that the "hexes" of Pennsylvania
Dutch folk-magic are evil in their intent. So too, is this also
true with African-American hoodoo and European witchcraft. The
words "hex" and "hoodoo" and "bewitch" are often considered
synonymous with "curse" or to "magically harm", leaving love
spells, prosperity spells, animal fertility spells, or home
protection spells that are worked in these traditions totally
unmentioned. Usually, this is done because of ignorance rather
than malice. Education is the key, and fortunately,
vocabulary-ignorance only affects the people who are misusing a
word, it does not affect the actual culture in which the term
originated. Therefore, if you were to go to Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, and ask for a hex, you would not be given a curse,
but rather the Pennsylvania Dutch version of a sigil, talisman, or
seal--a six-sided geometrical image to be used for magical
purposes. "Hoodoo", "conjure", "rootwork" and "laying down tricks"
are also regionally popular terms for spell casting, both
benevolent and malevolent. They originate in the African-American
culture and are common terms across the United States.
Magical rituals, especially involving mundane, natural objects
such as herbs and minerals, exist in virtually every human
culture. This seems to hold true whether there is a deity worship
involved or not.
Magic has been defined in many different ways. A popular view of
magic has always been as a kind of energy that fills the universe.
Another popular conception of magic is as a psychic tool, by which
we can influence the material world we live in using symbols and
rituals. Magic has also been characterized as a means of uniting
with the divine, an exercise of one's "will" or the manipulation
There have been differing suggestions of magical currents or
energies based on style or intent. Some consider the possibilities
of principles, scientific structure or laws of magic as eminently
plausible. While yet others approach the definition of magic more
subjectively, considering the knowledge of the elements of magic
to be personal and therefore peculiar to the individual form.
Multitudinous discussions on these subjects have occurred. One
immensely admired hypothesis is the
magic/individual--religion/group model. This perception postulates
that magical practices not involving a congregation and worship
service are not religious. For example, a woman casting a love
spell with oils and a candle to attract a man would not, under
this principle, be a religious act, as it neither involves a
congregation nor a worship service. In turn, in accordance with
this view, magical practices that include a congregation and
worship should be considered as religious. There is a somewhat
popular estimation that religious practices cannot be magical,
while still others purport that religious rites that summon the
service of spirits or unknown forces to initiate some modification
in the world are magical. In example, a Christian prayer meeting
for the purpose of healing a member of the congregation would be
While we are confronted with differing views on what magic is and
how it works, it is in the individual human that the true answer
is to be found. For belief comes not from without, but from
within, and therefore, in conclusion, it can be said today and
tomorrow that, ultimately, what one believes is one's own choice
and a projection of who they are.